THE EUREKA STOCKADE
This poster advertised the meeting 'of all the diggers, storekeepers, and inhabitants of Ballarat generally' to be held on Bakery Hill on Wednesday the 29th of November 1854 at 2 o’clock. This mass rally was a major event in the lead up to the storming of the Eureka Stockade on Sunday the 3rd of December 1854. The day of the massacre is commemorated on every anniversary. Ballarat youngsters from an early age learn the story and participate in reenactments. Historic documents held at the Public Record Office of Victoria have recorded the facts, journalists of the day reported on the Eureka Sedition Trials and the triumphant vindication when all those accused were acquitted. Since then, there is a continuing debate about the post-Eureka reforms and what actually brought them about. The very mention of the word Eureka in Ballarat today is enough for people to express strongly held views on one side or the other. It is rather like the American Civil War which has never really ended - people still identify with the cause of their choice.
EUREKA RESEARCH REFERENCES
Blood on the Southern Cross is a sound and light show at Sovereign Hill. This is a must-see experience for visitors interested in the Eureka story.
The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Justin Corfield, Dorothy Wickham, Clare Gervasoni, Ballarat Heritage Services, Ballarat, 2004
The Forgotten Rebels of Eureka, Claire Wright, The Text Publishing Co, Melbourne, 2013
History of Ballarat and Some Ballarat Reminiscences From the original edition of History of Ballarat by William Bramwell Withers, first published 1870. Originally twelve weekly parts of History of Ballarat, featured in the Ballarat Star, beginning on the 11th June 1870. Bound volumes of History of Ballarat were sold from early August of the same year. Some Ballarat Reminiscences by W B Withers, first published in serial form in 1895 and 1896. (Digitised by the University of California)
Lucky City : The First Generation at Ballarat 1851-1901, Weston Bate, Melbourne University Press, 1978
M.A.D.E. Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka is a 2013 upgrade of the former Eureka Centre. The Eureka Flag which flew above the Stockade is held here on loan from the Art Gallery of Ballarat.
Soldiers Bleed Too : The Redcoats at the Eureka Stockade 1854, Neil C Smith, Mostly Unsung Military History Reseach and Publications, Gardenvale, 2004
Women of the Diggings Ballarat 1854, Dorothy Wickham, BHS Publishing, Ballarat, 2009
William Williams (~1814-1901) - a veteran of the Eureka Stockade and buried in the Alexandra Cemetery.
Alexandra Standard (Newspaper) 13th September 1895
A somewhat remarkable curse has been effected in the local hospital within the past few days. An old man (82 years of age) was sent by the Yea Council apparently to die here. His sufferings were on admission something terrible, and with his advanced years added to them there did not seem a particle of hope of his recovery. And, indeed, the patient himself thought his last hours had come, and sought for and obtained the services of a minister of his church. As a trifling series of complications we would here mention that he had three ribs broken on one side, four on the other, the lobe of right ear shot away, an arm broken in two places and never joined properly, and a skull fractured from a blow from the butt of a musket.
These were reminiscences of the battle of the Eureka Stockade (in 1854), in which Mr Williams, we are informed, took an active part. As his name denotes, his forefathers hail from Gallant Little Wales, but he was horn on the Welsh Back Bristol. The veteran has gone out cured and is, as might be expected, loud in his praises of Dr Lethbridge. He is an old miner and intends resuming 'prospecting' at once and has, as a stimulus, an intense desire to find a good 'specimen' for the kind matron (Mrs Newman) and her worthy husband. More power to him, we say. When we saw him, shortly after he had taken his bed in the ward, he reminded us of some of the canvassers who had played a prominent part during an electioneering campaign in America. These individuals never trouble themselves as to the opposition they have to contend with, physically, so long as they return their man.
Alexandra Standard Friday 3 May 1901
Death of a Pauper ?
AT THE HOSPITAL HE LEAVES £50 BEHIND. CONCEALED IN HIS WAIST COAT. BANK BOOK ANNEXED. THE CURATOR WILL DECIDE.
There died in the local hospital on Saturday last, one of the participants in the Eureka Stockade riot. William Williams, who had seen some 87 summers, spent the last five and a half years of his life in our benevolent institution. In his youth he came to the colony, and migrated to the gold fields. When the trouble arose over the licenses at Ballarat he joined the mal-contents, and stood shoulder to shoulder with Lawlor. When the stockade was rushed, Williams fought fiercely, receiving an upper cut which slit his ear, almost severing it; a blow on the head which left an unsightly scar, and a wound in the arm, by which the bone was shattered. While the arm was still in splints, Williams encountered an old enemy, who thought it a fine opportunity, now that the former was disabled, to pay off old scores. But he reckoned with out his host, for Williams 'sailed in' and soon placed him hors-de-combat. In the bout the injured arm was knocked about, but Williams refused to see a doctor and have it re-set, contenting himself with binding it up in a handkerchief. The result of his obstinacy was remarkable, for in time at injured spot a new joint formed, which he was able to use just as aptly as his elbow. The strange development in no way interfered with his work, for I he was able, up to the time of his having to enter the hospital suffering from an internal complaint, to earn his livelihood as a laborer. He was buried on Monday morning, the Rev. W. H. Beer officiating at the grave. Quite a flutter of excitement was occasioned in the institution, on Wednesday, by the accidental discovery of a bank book showing that Williams had £50 standing to his credit in the Savings Bank. It was nothing short of wonderful that the discovery was made, in as much as it was while in the act of burning the deceased man's clothing that a waistcoat was turned over and presented a rather bulky appearance. After closer examination, and to the astonishment of all present, the bank book was found securely sewn between the cloth and lining. It is a wonder the garment was not consigned to the flames with the other effects, and it, is to be hoped that the institution will now benefit by the timely discovery. In 1893, some two years before Williams was admitted to the hospital here he had over £54 to his credit, and having drawn a few pounds, left exactly the £50 intact since 1893. In 1895, Williams was admitted to our hospital and since that time had proved himself a most worthy inmate, being at all times willing to do anything asked in aiding the general work. He was a most obliging man and scrupulously clean in his habits. Indeed, he was much liked by all, and in consequence, was treated most liberally by Dr Johnson and the officials. He was never without his tobacco or stimulant and repeatedly remarked to the wards man (Mr. Smith) that he would someday be rewarded for his kindness towards him (Williams.) Of course, Williams was looked upon as a man totally without means, and this discovery has greatly astonished all connected with the hospital. The President has been handed the bank book and it now remains to be seen what will be done with the cash. Of course the Curator of Intestate Estates will have first say and should there be no relatives forthcoming, it is only fair that the hospital should reap the benefit it richly deserves for the care bestowed upon this unselfish man. It was thought some time back that Williams would be leaving the institute, and in the event of that, Dr Johnson had decided to pay out of his own pocket, the necessary amount per week for his retention. Williams, it is said, was in the thickest of the fight at the Eureka riot, and fought like a tiger, but was fortunate to escape and plant in an abandoned shaft, until he was suddenly, surprised one day, by ,the sudden, appearance-of a tin hat over the hole. He suffered a short term of imprisonment for the part he took in the affray. It appears that the wonderful formation of an extra joint in his arm was due to the fact that a sharp edge left of the upper most fracture had helped to form the joint. Dr. Johnson says that it was a perfect, or universal joint, and the only case known of in the States, New Zealand boasts of a similar freak.
Alexandra Standard Friday 12 January 1900 An old inmate of the Alexandra hospital named William Williams, who was severely wounded in the Eureka Stockade riots, became demented on Wednesday morning, and on the following day managed to elude the vigilance of the wardsman and matron, and made his escape from the hospital. He was found lying in a drain near the residence of Mr H W. Alston, and brought back by Mr. Mooney. The poor old fellow is perfectly harmless, and has been one of the most useful men that ever entered the institution.
Contributed by Leisa Lees 20 May 2013